Professor of Constitutional Law, he was a Member of the Italian Parliament from 1979 to 2006, and a Cabinet Minister in the governments of Prodi, D’Alema and Amato II (1996-2001). He is President of the Fondazione Astrid, a think tank specialising in research into public policy, Italian and European institutions, public finance, economic regulation and e-government (www.astrid.eu). He chairs the board of Open Fiber SpA and Persidera SpA. Chairman of Cassa Depositi e Prestiti from 2008 to 2015, he is currently on the board of Assonime and the Advisory Board of FeBAF (Federazione Banche, Assicurazioni e Finanza). He is Honorary Chairman of the Long-Term Investors Club-D20. He has lectured at the Universities of Rome, Milan, Florence, Trento and Sassari and published 20 books and 400 scientific articles on public law, economic law, public finance and European law.