He is Reader in Economics at Birkbeck, University of London. Previously, he spent seven years as Assistant Professor at the University Carlos III de Madrid, was a Visiting Professor at the University of Essex and held positions at the European Central Bank and the Bank of England. He did his BSc in Economics in Lisbon, and received his PhD from the London School of Economics in 2010. His research interests focus on fiscal policy, labour markets, education and human capital, and sovereign ratings. A leading researcher on public employment, he has published numerous articles in peer-reviewed journals and two chapters in books. He is a fellow of IZA Institute of Labour Economics.